Definition - What does Pressure Surge mean?
A Pressure Surge is a transient sudden rise or fall of pressure in a pipeline. Pipeline surges can be positive or negative and are mostly caused by the sudden closure of a block valve or emergency shutdown of a pump. If the pressure surge is in excess of the rated capacity of a pipeline it can cause ruptures in the piping system.
Petropedia explains Pressure Surge
In drilling operations, when a pressure surge is experienced it is called as a surging effect. It happens when a bit or casing is run too fast into a borehole and the mud in the borehole is viscous. This creates a situation whereby the mud below the bit or casing cannot travel up at the same speed to displace the equivalent volume of steel that is being run thereby temporarily creating a pressure surge to the formation below. This creates a temporary surging effect; however, it may be adequate sometimes to induce losses in the well.