Definition - What does Power Tongs mean?
Power Tongs are self-locking, large-capacity pliers used to grip the drill string components and apply torque. The tongs should be used by a plumber in opposing pairs with opposing pipe wrenches. To improve the efficiency, a set of the tongs is tied off with a chain or a cable to the derrick and the other set is pulled actively with mechanical catheads. The Power Tongs are either hydraulically or pneumatically operated tools.
Petropedia explains Power Tongs
Power Tongs are tools that are capable of spinning the pipe up and at times can apply the final make-up torque. There are various types of Power Tongs that can be used according to their specific use:
- Drill Pipe Tongs: These are used to reduce the drill time and lower costs. They are designed for safe and quick make-up and break-out drill pipes and drill collars.
- Casing Tongs: Casing power tongs are used to make or break casing tubulars placed in the drill hole in order to maintain the opening of the well. Available with an array of models to choose from: Standard, Hydra-Shift, High Torque, and Ultra High Torque with torques ranging from 15,000 ft-lbs up to 200,000 ft-lbs. Once the casing is installed, tubing is inserted inside the casing, from the opening well at the top, to the formation at the bottom. The hydrocarbons that are extracted run up this tubing to the surface. The benefit of these automated casing running and tubular handling systems was leveraged by many other innovations. Modular systems provided interchangeable mechanized power tongs for casing, tubing, and drillpipe. Multitask versatility combined the capability to perform casing connection makeup, torque monitoring, casing fill-up and circulation, rotation and casing reaming and drilling, and elevator functions.
- Tubing Tongs: Tubing Tongs provide reliable performance even at a higher torque essential to break premium connections. These are coupled with two-speed great train that assures the reliability and minimal maintenance along with quick operator turn-out.