Definition - What does Broach mean?
A Broach, also known as a tubing broach is a downhole tool that is used during well workover and intervention processes to cut burrs and repair internal damages on the production tubing. These burrs can be caused due to rust, perforation and deformation of the tubing. The broach consists of cutting profiles which remove the damaged tubing wall material and clear the passage for other equipment and tools to pass through the production tubing.
Petropedia explains Broach
Tubing is primarily run down through a wellbore to facilitate the transmission of the fluids from the reservoir. It is inserted and fixed into the wellbore and forms an important conduit for the production of fluids. Since the underground fluids are extracted with high pressure from the bottom to the surface, the tubing is required to be strong enough to bear the pressure of the fluids. Also, it should be of a size that accommodates the volume rate of oil and gas produced. However, the tubing can get jammed with particles, rust or grime from within, hence interrupting the smooth extraction of the oil and gas. Therefore, the broaching process is carried out.
During the broaching process a broach is used to ensure that the internal surface of the production tubing remains free from deformations before any other well intervention tool is passed through the production tubing. This broaching and cleaning process, i.e., is necessary because wear and tear of metal piece may damage other workover equipment when they are passed through production tubing for further workover operations. The broach's cutter profile helps in getting rid of the inner deformity easily, as it is pushed inside the tubing with high impact. The high impact causes the tube to get in shape, therefore, resuming the regular production.