Sucker Rod Pump

Definition - What does Sucker Rod Pump mean?

A Sucker Rod Pump is an artificial pump system used to connect the downhole pump assembly with the surface components that facilitate a pumping motion. This pump system uses different types of components that generate reciprocating motions which make it easy to lift fluids from bottom to the surface in a vertical movement. It is powered by a motor that causes the plunger to work in two strokes, i.e., up and down. The main components of a Sucker Rod Pump are a walking beam, power shaft, cranks, counter weighs, horsehead, polished rod, Pitman arms and Samson beams.

Petropedia explains Sucker Rod Pump

A downhole Sucker Rod Pump is used on onshore sites to create a mechanical lifting motion. This motion is created by a series of valves, plungers, rod strings and rods that are assembled together as a pumping system. A Sucker Rod Pump works in the following way:

  • A motor and gear box runs the power shaft.
  • Counter weights are added to the cranks at the end and the cranks lift the counter weights.
  • The Pitman arms connect the walking beam with the cranks. The beam then hinges and lowers the plunger. When the plunger and the horse head are lowered, it completes 1 downstroke.
  • When the horsehead and plunger are lifted up, the fluid gets lifted from the bottom to the surface. This completes the upstroke.
  • The fluid flow determines the opening and closing of the valves. The standing valve is opened while the riding valve is closed during the upstroke. During the downstroke, the standing valve gets closed and the riding valve is opened.
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